Major Actions of Preventive Measures on Sars-Cov-2: An Updated Vision for Emergency Physicians
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Copyright (c) 2021 Mariana de Almeida Lima, Manoel de Almeida Lima, Vitor Bottós da Silva, Dorival Scantamburlo Júnior, Marcio Cesar Reino Gaggini
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Introduction: The new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has infected more than 23 million individuals to date and has resulted in more than 800,000 deaths worldwide. The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants requires the urgent development of accurate diagnostic methods, effective treatments, and vaccines. The recommendations are also related to the Expert Consensus for Clinical Management of Covid-19, at the headquarters of the Pan American Health Organization / World Health Organization (PAHO / WHO) in Brasilia (Brazil). Objective: To gather the main pathophysiological considerations of COVID-19, as well as the actions of investigation, management, and adoption of preventive measures against the complications caused by SARS-CoV-2 in the emergency of hospitals. Methods: This study followed an integrative review model based on the systematic review model. The search for the articles occurred in the databases WHO, PAHO, Ministry of Health, PubMed, Embase, Ovid, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument. The risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. Results and Conclusion: A total of 58 clinical studies were recruited and submitted to eligibility analysis and, after that, 26 studies were selected, including official public health guidelines and regulations. To the published articles, studies of high to medium quality and with risks of bias were selected that do not compromise the scientific basis of the studies. Based on the main literary findings, as well as the main public health guidelines published in the world, patients with COVID-19 may present respiratory syndromes very similar to the common influenza virus (influenza), being a challenge for early detection during screening. in emergency departments. According to the official health agencies of Brazil (Ministry of Health) and the world (WHO/PAHO) and their regulations, it was defined that the clinical criteria for hospital discharge should take into account the improvement of the clinical picture, the absence of tachydyspnea and hypoxia, the absence of O2 supplementation for at least 24 hours, hemodynamic stability, good oral acceptance and absence of fever.
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